Organic Chemistry Synthesis
Many students freak out when it comes to taking organic chemistry course.
If you could hear what is going on in their minds, it will sound something like this: “I wouldn’t be able to do it….I am going to flunk this course”.
These thoughts are counterproductive and a waste of precious time. Organic chemistry is used to explain most of the chemical reactions that occur naturally or those used to prepare synthetic organic compounds.
Understanding organic chemistry is the key to mastering organic chemistry synthesis. The best way to truly master modern organic synthesis is to through practice of concepts mechanisms everyday and consistently reading chemical synthesis articles. Reaction mechanisms are your key to success in organic chemistry my chemistry professor used to say.
Mechanisms are used to explain the flow of electrons in a predicted simple concept. Organic chemistry is all about taking the principles you learned and applying them to new situations. This is easy to do if you have a good understanding of comprehensive organic synthesis approaches. But commonly, Students ask how many mechanisms need to be mastered in order to be good? The answer is it depends how you count the reaction mechanisms.
Besides naturally occurring compounds, most of the organic compounds are prepared via modern organic synthesis approach. Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemistry that is focused on the construction of organic compounds using specific organic reactions. Depending on the complexity of the compound, the chemical synthesis will involve one or several synthetic steps. In current organic synthesis each step may involve specific reagents for a particular compound synthesis (reagents organic synthesis).
Synthetic Chemistry Approach
Majority of chemical research utilize synthetic chemistry approach and such methods are used in custom organic synthesis. Big pharmaceutical giants such as Merck, Pfizer, P&G hire a large number of new and experienced PhDs to assist in moving their research in drug discoveries forward. Other chemical companies survive economically through custom synthesis. Custom organic synthesis is a process where, a needing company place an order for a particular organic compound. The requested quantity of that compound will be produced at custom basis. A specialized laboratory for custom organic synthesis must be ready to efficiently carry out multi-steps organic reactions. It must also equipped with appropriate chemical catalysts and have a know how in solid phase organic synthesis.
The chemical compounds made in each step are usually referred to as synthetic intermediates. For more complex compounds, a convergent synthesis is used: several key intermediates of the final product are synthesized separately, then coupled together to yield the final product.
This process is referred to as total synthesis. A classic example is the total synthesis of the anti cancer agent, Taxol by Holton, Nicolaou and Danishefsky. This kind of synthesis design requires a full knowledge of current organic synthesis and a comprehensive organic synthesis background.
Some of the most exciting organic chemistry synthesis topics include reaction mechanisms, synthetic reactions and strategies, combinatorial chemistry, carbohydrate chemistry, chemical glycobiology, and theoretical organic chemistry.
The studies from these topics are the starting point of a contemporary foundation for addressing problems in process chemistry, drug design and discovery, and materials research.
The most significant of the new reactions and reagents, including organometallic reagents, transition metal catalyzed reactions and reactions and reagents based on the unusual chemical properties of phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon, and hetereoatoms to name just few.
Modern and Recent Developments
Modern and recent development of organic chemistry synthesis and related topics include the following:
- The basics in current research areas related to synthesis; terminology used in modern organic chemistry such as retrosynthesis concept, problems of an efficiency selectivity and atom economy.
- Organic Reactions and Mechanisms describing the concepts of reactivity and stereochemistry; carbon acidity and carbanionic reactions; enolates; reactions of organometalloids; cycloadditions and rearrangements; oxidations and reductions; new reagents for group transfer and condensation reactions; carbofunctionalization of olefins and acetylenes; radical and ionic reactions.
- Transition Metal Organometallic Reactions and Mechanisms: includes elementary reactions in organometallic chemistry; oxidative addition: application to coupling reactions and CH bond activation; CO insertion reactions; metal hydride additions and eliminations; metal carbene complexes in olefin metathesis and cyclopropanation; π- allyl metal complexes; reductive coupling of alkynes and alkenes; early transition metal chemistry.
- Strategies, Methods, Reagents and Mechanisms in Complex Molecule Synthesis: Involve fundamental principles of synthesis design: complexity, brevity, and the ideal synthesis; where to start--emerging strategy level reactions and concepts for complex molecule synthesis; new approaches to building blocks: advances in asymmetric synthesis and resolution methods; concerted reactions and reactive intermediates: that covers all mechanisms; tuning reactions and reagents; Concepts for controlling reactions selectivities; advances in the synthesis of small and common ring systems; advances in the synthesis of medium and large ring systems; troubleshooting, problems in synthesis and catalysis.
- Modern Theoretical Concepts in Organic Chemistry: Involves organic chemists' guide to molecular orbital ( MO) theory and its practical uses; recent developments in pericyclic reaction mechanisms and selectivities; computational methods for prediction of organic structures, properties, and spectra; modeling reactions involving stereoselective reagents and catalysts.
- High Throughput Synthesis and Combinatorial Chemistry: It involves the synthesis strategies; combinatorial synthesis techniques; library design; combinatorial approaches for reaction optimization.
- Carbohydrate Chemistry and Chemical Glycobiology which deals with the overview of carbohydrate structures and disease relevance; glycoside synthesis construction; carbohydrate protection strategies; oligosaccharide synthesis strategies known as "one pot" solution phase and enzymatic approaches; carbohydrate-based drug discovery are the chemical tools for studying glycobiology.